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dc.contributorScott Santos, santosr@auburn.eduen_US
dc.creatorMoran, Nancy A
dc.creatorDegnan, Patrick H
dc.creatorSantos, Scott R
dc.creatorDunbar, Helen E
dc.creatorOchman, Howard
dc.date.accessioned2019-08-08T05:27:52Z
dc.date.available2019-08-08T05:27:52Z
dc.date.created2005-11-22
dc.identifier10.1073/pnas.0507029102en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/47/16919.shorten_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11200/49446
dc.description.abstractAphids maintain mutualistic symbioses involving consortia of coinherited organisms. All possess a primary endosymbiont, Buchnera, which compensates for dietary deficiencies; many also contain secondary symbionts, such as Hamiltonella defensa, which confers defense against natural enemies. Genome sequences of uncultivable secondary symbionts have been refractory to analysis due to the difficulties of isolating adequate DNA samples. By amplifying DNA from hemolymph of infected pea aphids, we obtained a set of genomic sequences of H. defensa and an associated bacteriophage. H. defensa harbors two type III secretion systems, related to those that mediate host cell entry by enteric pathogens. The phage, called APSE-2, is a close relative of the previously sequenced APSE-1 but contains intact homologs of the gene encoding cytolethal distending toxin (cdtB), which interrupts the eukaryotic cell cycle and which is known from a variety of mammalian pathogens. The cdtB homolog is highly expressed, and its genomic position corresponds to that of a homolog of stx (encoding Shiga-toxin) within APSE-1. APSE-2 genomes were consistently abundant in infected pea aphids, and related phages were found in all tested isolates of H. defensa, from numerous insect species. Based on their ubiquity and abundance, these phages appear to be an obligate component of the H. defensa life cycle. We propose that, in these mutualistic symbionts, phage-borne toxin genes provide defense to the aphid host and are a basis for the observed protection against eukaryotic parasites.en_US
dc.formatPDFen_US
dc.publisherNational Science Foundation; US Department of Energyen_US
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries0027-8424en_US
dc.rights© 2005. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectAphidsen_US
dc.subjectBuchneraen_US
dc.subjectEnterobacteriaceaeen_US
dc.subjectSymbiosisen_US
dc.subjectAcrythosiphon pisumen_US
dc.subjectHamiltonella defensaen_US
dc.subjectLamboid phageen_US
dc.titleThe players in a mutualistic symbiosis: insects, bacteria, viruses, and virulence genesen_US
dc.typeCollectionen_US
dc.type.genreJournal Article, Academic Journalen_US
dc.citation.volume102en_US
dc.citation.issue47en_US
dc.citation.spage16919en_US
dc.citation.epage16926en_US
dc.description.statusPublisheden_US
dc.description.peerreviewYesen_US


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