Report 10. Impact des haies vives sur la production agricole
Rousseau, Pierre M.
Hunter, Arthur Gene
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DescriptionThe Haiti Agroforestry Research Project was a program to encourage Haitian farmers to plant fast growing trees as a cash crop. This project was part of an overall plan by USAID to curb the devastating erosion which was washing the top soil into the sea.
Declining yields and land degradation are becoming more dramatic every year in spite of increasing foreign aid. Population growth far exceeds food production capacities. However, the effects of all agricultural development programs of any importance at the regional level are only felt on a medium or long term basis. Agricultural development is a multidisciplinary effort involving research and extension services. Agricultural development needs to take into consideration the economic factors necessary to insure not only the national goals, but also the goals of the individual, be he a producer or a consumer. The reduction of the fallow duration together with the loss of nutrients due to the removal or destruction of crop residues and erosion of fine soil particles (clay), induces the decline in soil fertility and land degradation. This kind of "mining" agriculture that prevail in Haiti is the basis for over exploitation of the land. Hillside farming in Haiti is practiced primarily by small farmers, and measures must be taken to help them maintain or improve their production capacity. The introduction of techniques, measured, also have a medium and long term impact on soil conservation as well as soil fertility. In selected sites, hedgerows have been evaluated in terms of their efficiency in conserving soil and maintain soil fertility as well as their effect on crops. This study has shown that in the mixed cropping farming practices currently prevalent in Haiti, and within an experimental context, crop yield are not affected by the hedgerows or their associated crops. Experimental results show that hedgerows are a source of impressive soil savings, on the order of 70 tons per ha per year which on one hectare of land represents 7 mm.Chak ané Hayiti ap pedi tè li è tè-a ap vin pi meg malgré gwo peyi yo ap bay plis aid. Tè-a pa kapab fè asé manjé pou tout moun nan peyi-a. Efè pwogram dévelopman agrikilti yo pap paret pou kèk ten. Dévlopman agrikilti sé you pwojé ki mandé poté kolé sektè, sak ap fe rèshesh ak sak ap apliké rézilta rèshesh yo. Sektè ékonomik la dwé gadé sou intèrè nasional la ak intèrèt chak citwayen, ni pwodictè ni consomatè. Genyen plisyé coz tè-a ap vin pi meg chak jou; li pa fè asé tan nan jachè, epi tout nanan tè-a pati ak rékolt la è nan èwozyon. Agrikilti plantè san posé, san la swenyaj sé yon abi tè-a. Nan Hayiti sé plis ti plantè nan morn kap travay tè-s, men fok nou fè yon jen pou aidé yo genyen mèyor ranman sou fèm yo. Sèvi tèknik kou ramp vivan ka genyen mèyor ranman sou fèm yo. Sèvi tèknik kou ramp vivan ka genyen yon èfè pozitif sou consèvasyon è fetilité tè-s. Esperyens ak ramp vivan nan plisyé zon deja montré jen yo kapab poté yon aid pou pwotejé tè-a épi yo ren li pi fetil pou kilti. Esperyens sa yo montré èfè ramp vivan pa contraryé renmen kilti yo. Ramp vivan-a pemet tè-a conseve kalite nanan li apepre 90 tonn pa kawo ki reprezente 7 mm sou yon kawo.The French version of the executive summary for this report is missing from the original document.
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