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Report 14. Food marketing in Northwest Haiti CARE Regions I-IV


Jolly, Curtis M.
Jean-Louis, Nelta


The marketing study was initiated in October, 1990. The objectives were to identify the crops produced and sold in the Northwestern region, collect and analyze prices of crops, evaluate marketing costs and identify market potentials for crops produced in the region. The food marketing system is dominated by a number of small producers, selling small quantities of marketable surpluses after harvest at primary and secondary marketplaces. There are linkages between the markets. For example, the Poste Metier market depends on the Port-de-Paix market for manufactured goods. The Port-de-Paix market depends on the Beauchamps market for beans, grains, and small livestock, such as chicken. The marketing channels are simple and straight forward. Produce are either sold on the farm or at the marketplace. Only a few products are sold on the farm. Contractual arrangements are few and are purely in the form of verbal agreements. The intermediaries can be wholesalers who invest substantial amounts of money buying a vehicle and erecting storage houses, or a retailer selling small quantitites of commodities to earn a daily wage. Market information was obtained from visits to the marketplaces. Market participants were the most common source of information. Little information was supplied by the public service on market prices, and product availability. There were no signs of intermediaries preyingon farmers or consumers. The cost of moving goods from producer to consumer constituted a major component of marketing cost. When the time spent in marketing products is factored in sales cost, it is observed that marketers just earned enough money to cover their daily wages. Prices are set at the marketplace. Most market participants were aware of the existing market prices, and usually charged the on-going market price. The amount of haggling depended on the value of the product, and its perishability. Price variation within and between regions, and seasonal price differences were observed for almost all crops. The degree of variation depended on the crop storage life. Price fluctuation was less for the crops such as cassava and sweet potatoes which could be stored in the ground for some time. The processing of food products generated a substantial amount of revenue to processors. There was no control over product quality and standards. Mill owners for the processing of cereals were found in the vicinity of the large markets such as Gonaive and Port-de-Paix, but were inaccessible to vendors and producers at secondary markets. There are potentials for increasing the role of the market in stimulating the agricultural sector. Market opportunities for increasing farm income were identified. Opportunities 1. The increased production of specialty crops such as pigeon peas, sweet potatoes and plantains for local consumption and export seem to be an average for increasing farm revenue. the use of fertilizers could help increase yields so that production can exceed domestic needs. Pigeon peas can become an income earner if exported to the United States, and neighboring countries, such as Jamaica and the Bahamas, where demand for pigeon peas is increasing. 2. The increased production of fruits, such as mango and paw paw can enhance income generation from agriculture. These crops are already grown in the region, and sold throughout the country, but the distribution of varieties with high export potentials can be included in the national agricultural program. Haitian mangoes are already sold in a number of U.S. cities, such as Atlanta, Baltimore and Washington, and are well appreciated. 3. The yield of cereals has been on a decline. The improvement in the production of cereals will depend on increased yields, and not on the expansion of surface area planted; therefore, cultural practices which will improve yields should be a priority. 4. Food processors realize profits from the sale of agricultural products; therefore, the improvement of processing techniques should help increase revenues from agriculture. 5. The increase in para-agricultural activities such as the production of hats, bags and art from straws seem to be common in Haiti and the Northwest, but these were not included in the original design of the study. These have potentials for increasing farm revenue, either from local sales or from exports. Attention should be paid to the propagation of crops for the production of straw products. 6. Production and sale of small stock did not form part of this study, but through observations made at the marketplace there is a tremendous opportunity for farm income generation through the increase in production of small stock, such as rabbits, goats and chicken, which do nt require substantial amounts of investments and improved techniques. Opportunities for increasing farm income exist, and can be tapped if the infrastructure are in place and the factors which impede the flow of market goods and services are eliminated. Marketing Constraints The most pressing constraints which impede the marketing of agricultural products in the Northwest are: 1. The road conditions, especially to secondary markets, seemed to be one of the major constraining factors impeding the marketing of produce in the Northwest. 2. Food storage at the farm and market levels seem to be a concern to intermediaries and farmers. 3. Small mills are inaccessible to farmers and intermediaries around secondary markets. The value added from farm products are captured by owners of processing plants in large cities, and very little is returned to the farm. 4. The absence of a market information system limits the market opportunities for small producers. This limits the farmers' planning horizon. 5. Present product quality will reduce the quantities and quality of produce shipped if export opportunities develop. A large number of products, for example plantains, deteriorate before they arrive at the marketplaces. The market can have a significant effect on the agricultural sector if some of these recommendations are accepted and acted upon. Recommendations 1. The public service needs to be made aware of the importance of road improvements to the agricultural sector. Roads which link major production areas must be given immediate attention. It has been shown that the returns to feeder road construction in developing economies can more than cover the construction cost. 2. The improvement of the marketplaces and their accessibility should be given due consideration. Some amenities such as toilets and parking areas for humans and corrals for animals, can greatly improve the marketing process. 3. The development of a market information system is not expensive and this should be one of the priority considerations. The local radio can be used for diffusing market information on prices and products available. 4. Product quality demonstration and the effects of increased product quality on farm revenues should be planned by the extension service. 5. New techniques for food preservation at the farm level should be demonstrated. A feasibility study on cereal processing mill location in close proximity to farming areas with high potentials should be conducted. 6. Farmers should be advised on the use of new methods of reducing storage losses. Some of the present methods in use by farmers for storing their products, such as the use of toxic chemicals as DDT and organophosphate compounds should be discouraged and improved methods demonstrated to farmers by the extension agents. Farmers' own techniques should be studied for their scientific merit, and if proven effective should be extended to other farmers. 7. Farmers should be encouraged to produce crops with export potentials. Crops such as mangoes, paw paw, sweet potatoes, plantains, pigeon peas, cashew and cassava should be evaluated as export revenue generators for northwest farmers. 8. An advertisement program, which encourages Haitians to buy local, especially local preserves, would help boost the sales of processed products.


Etid sou komèsyakuzasyon sa-a te kòmanse an Oktòb 1990. Objektif étid la se pou jwenn ki sa yo pwodwi ak vann nan Nòdwès, chèche konnen ak analize pri pwodwi yo, etidye konbyen sa koute pou pote pwodwi yo nan mache, etidye tou ki posibilite ki genyen pou vann sa ki pwodwi nan zòn Nòdwès la. Machann yo se plis kiltivatè ki ap vann ti kantite manje yo fè an plis yo nan gwo tankou nan ti mache. Gen rapò ant mache yo. Pa egzanp, Mache Pòs Metye-a depann de mache Pòdpè-a pou pwodwi atizanal yo. Mache Pòdpè-a depann de mache Bochan pou pwa, mayi, pitimi, diri, ak bèt tankou poul. Wout pwodwi yo fè pa konplike ditou. Yo vann yo oubyen depi nan jaden oubyen nan mache. Anjeneral se nan mache yo al vann. Se pa fasil pou moun k-ap achte ak vann fè kontra epi le yo fèt yo pa ekri sou papye. Entèmedyè se oubyen moun ki achte an gwo, ki envesti anpil lajan pou achte machinn pou transpò pwodwi yo, ki konstwi depo se moun ki achte an detay pou fè you ti kòb chak jou. Enfòmasyon yo te rasanble pandan vizit nan mache yo nan pale ak machann yo. Nou pat jwenn anpil enfòmasyon nan sèvis piblik yo sou pri pwodwi yo, lè yo ka jwenn yo ak ki kote yo ka jwenn yo. Sanble pa genyen entèmedyè k-ap eksplwate kiltivatè yo ak konsomatè yo nan zòn lan. Pri transpò pwodwi yo sanble pi gwo moso nan kòb ki depanse pou komèsyalizasyon pwodwi yo. Lè ou detaye pri yo vann pwodwi yo, ou wè ke machann yo pa fè gwo benefis. Pri yo fikse na mache-a. Majorite machann yo konnen pri yo e yo vann machandiz yo menm pri ki sou mache-a. Pri pwodwui-a ka diskite. Sa depann de valè pwodwi-a e de posiblite pou-l konsève. Pou tout pwodwi yo, nou remake ke pri yo varye nan you menm rejion, ant de rejion ou byen ankò pou de sezon diferan. Li depann de posiblite pou konsève pwodwi-a. Pri yo te mwens varye pou pwodwi tankou manyòk ak patat ki ka konsève nan tè pandan yon sètin tan. Transfòmasyon pwodwi pou manje yo rapòte moun ki ap fè aktivite sa-a. Pa gen kontwòl sou kalite pwodwi sa yo. Nou te jwenn moulen mayi, pitimi, diri, tou pre gwo mache yo tankou Gonayiv, Pòdpe, men pa bò mache ki mwen enpòtan yo. Si yo ankouraje moun yo fè agrikilti yo ka ogmante enpòtans mache yo. Nou te idantifye mwayen pou moun yo fè plis lajan nan lavant pwodwi yo. Mwayen Pou Moun Yo Fe Plis Lajan 1. Yon mwayen pou ogmante kantite lajan moun yo fè, se ta ogmante pwodiksyon kèk kilti tankou pwa kongo, patat ak bannann pou vann sou plas ou byen pou voye vann aletranje. Yo ka itilize angrè pou ogrmante randman yo. Pwa kongo ta ka vann lòt bò dlo, tankou Ozetazini, Jamayik, Baamas ak lòt peyi nan Karayib la. 2. Yo ta ka ogmante pwodiksyon fwi tankou mango, papay, pou fè plis lajan. Yo fè kilti sa yo nan zòn nan deja e yo vann yo nan tout peyi-a. Yo tak ka sèlman vini ak lòt varyete ki bay plis nan pwogram agrikòl yo. Mango ayisyen ap vann deja nan kèk vil Ozetazini, tankou Atlanta, Baltimò, Wachinton, epi yo byen renmen yo. 3. Randman sereal yo ap bese. Sèl jan pou ogmante pwodisyon sereal yo se ogmante randman yo. Pa gen mwayen pou ogmante kantite tè yo plante yo. Yo dew bay priyorite a teknik pou ogmante randman yo. 4. Moun ki genyen moulen yo fè anpil pwofi. Si yo ameliorye teknik nan moulen yo, ap gen plis kòb ki rantre toujou. 5. Gen lòt aktivite atizanal tankou fè chapo, valiz ak lòt bagay an pay ki pèmèt moun yo fè lajan nan Nòdwès la, men yo pat nan etid la. Tou san, se aktivite ki ta ka fè moun nan zòn nan rantre lajan. Yo tak ka vann yo sou plas oubyen lòt bò dlo. Yo te dwe okipe miltipliye kilti ki pèmèt moun yo jwenn pay pou fè travay atizanal sa yo. 6. Ekvaj ak la vant bèt pat antre nan etid la. Men dapre sa nou obsève nan mache yo, gen anpil posiblite pou fè lajan si moun yo fè elvaj bèt tankou lapen, kabrit ak poul ki pa mande anpil kòb ak gwo teknik. Mwayen pou fè moun nan zòn nan fè plis lajan egziste, e yo ta pi klè si ta gen wout ak si yo ta elimine tout sa ki anpeche pwodwi ak sèvis rive kote yo dwe rive. Pwoblem Ki Poze Sou Mache-a Pi gwo pwoblèm nan Nòdwès ki anpeche komès pwodwi agrikòl yo fèt kòm sa dwa, se: 1. Move kondisyon wout yo sanble se pi gwo pwoblèm pou pwodwi yo rive kote yo dwe rive, sitou nan mache ki pa pre vil yo. 2. You lòt pwoblèm ankò se konsèvasyon pwodwi yo kay kiltivatè yo ak lè yo pote yo nan mache. 3. Kiltivatè ak entèmedye yo pa jwenn ti moulen toupre ti mache yo. Se pwopriyetè moulen lavil yo ki fè tout kòb la; you ti kras kòb al nan men plantè yo. 4. Pa gen you rezo enfòmasyon pou kiltivatè yo pa konnen debouche yo, yo pa konnen ki posiblite ki egziste pou fè plis kòb. 5. Pwodwi yo, jan yo ye kounye-a, pa finn bon kalite. Sa ka limite kantite bagay yo ta ka voye vann lòt bò dlo. Anpil pwodwi tankou bannann finn pouri anvan yo rive kote pou yo achte yo-a. Komèsyalizasyon pwodwi ka you ankourajman pou devlopman agrikilti si yo konsidere rekòmandasyon sa yo e si yo aplike yo: Rekomandasyon 1. Léta dwe konsyan ke wout enpòtan pou devlopman agrikilti. Yo dwe fè wout pou gen relasyon ant tout zòn agrikòl enpotan yo. Eksperians nan peyi k-ap devlope yo montre ke benefis ki ka tire nan konstwi wout ka depase kòb yo te envesti nan konstriksyon wout yo. 2. Yo dwe panse amelyore mache yo ak tout mwayen pou rive ladan yo. 3. Sa pa koute chè pou devlope you sistèm pou bay moun enfòmasyon sou mouvan nan mache yo. Yo te dwe bay sa priorite. 4. Sèvis ekstansyon dwe planifye seyans pou fè demonstrasyon sou kalite pwodwi yo e montre kòman kalite pwodwi yo ka rapòte plis lajan. 5. Yo dwe demontre nouvo teknik konsèvasyon pwodwi yo kay kiltivatè yo. Yo dwe fè you etid pou wè ki kote yo ka mete moulen mayi pitimi diri pa lwen kay kiltivatè yo. 6. Yo dwe montre kiltivatè yo nouvo metòd konsèvasyon pou yo dimine pèt. Ajan oubyen lòt ensektiskd danjere. Yo dwe montre yo lòt fason pou yo fè. Yo dwe etidye teknik ke peyizan yo itilize, gade sa ki efikas pou montre lòt moun. 7. Yo dwe ankouraje kiltivatè yo plante pwodwi yo ka voye vann lòt bò dlo, tankou mango, papay, patat, bannann, pwa kongo, nwa kajou, manyòk ke yo dwe evalye pou Nodwes-la. 8. Ta dwe gen you pwogram pou fè reklam pou ayisyen achte pwodwi you fè lakay yo, sitou konsèv. Sa ta ka pèmèt pi gwo lavant pwodwi ki transfòme an Ayiti.