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Report 06. Evaluation of tree species adaptation for alley cropping in four environments in Haiti. A. Establishment phase

Author

Shannon, Dennis A.
Isaac, Lionel

Publisher

Auburn, Ala. : Haiti Productive Land Use Systems Project, South-East Consortium for International Development and Auburn University

Abstract

Thirty-five tree species were planted in hedgerows in four environments in Haiti: high elevation (1150 m); low elevation, humid on calcareous soil; low elevation, humid on basaltic soil; and low elevation, semi-arid, with 16, 20, 16 and 18 species at the four sites respectively. Leucaena leucocephala, variety K 636, L. diversifolia variety K 156, Casuarina cunninghamiana and Gliricidia sepium variety HYB were included at all sites. Seed that failed to emerge were replaced with seedlings of the same age as those intially seeded, but this process was interrupted by the project suspension. Plant counts were taken at 6 weeks after planting and at 2-4 month intervals thereafter. Plant height was measured at monthly intervals. Large differences in emergence, plant height and leaf numbers were recorded. Satisfactory stands were obtained with a number of species at all sites. Poor establishment with direct seeding was observed with Casuarina cunninghamiana, Desmodium gyroides, Grevillea robusta, Piptadenia peregrina and most of the Acacia species, with the exception of A. angustissima, which established satisfactorily except at basaltic site, and A. colei. Survival was good for most species at high elevation except for Acacia mearnsii, Mimosa scabrella, and A. decurrens. Erythrina poeppigiana disappeared from the plots at the calcareous site, as did A. tumida at the semi-arid site. Severe stand losses were recorded for Piptadenia peregrina, Albizia procera, Cassia siamea, Albizia guachapele, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum at this site. Significant stand losses were also observed in Acacia colei and A. ampliceps. Good or satisfactory survival was recorded for most other species. At two and a half months after planting, K 636, Erythrina indica, Leucaena hybrid KX3, Gliricidia, K 156, and Erythrina poeppigiana were tallest at the calcareous site, followed by K 636, L. salvadorensis and Erythrina indica; Enterolobium was tallest at the basaltic site, followed by L salvadorensis, K 636 and Gliricidia; and Enterolobium and K 636 were tallest at the semi-arid site. At approximately 10 months to one year, K 636 was tallest at the high elevation site, followed by KX3, K 156 and Acacia angustissima; K 636 and KX3 were tallest at the basaltic site, followed by Calliandra, L. Salvadorensis, L. shannonii and K 156; and K 636 was tallest at the semi-arid site, followed by wild Leucaena leucocephala (Delin), Enterolobium and Gliricidia. Leaf numbers generally followed similar patterns except that most leaves were observed on Casuarina. Many of the small seeded species appeared to be unsuitable for direct seeding in the field because of difficulty in obtaining satisfactory stands. This limits their usefulness as hedgerows for alley cropping. The dry conditions and irregular rainfall pattern at the semi-arid site are not conducive to direct seeding of trees. Growth of hedgerows was excellent at the high elevation and calcareous sites and adequate at the basaltic site for the promotion of alley cropping, but poor at the semi-arid site. The major difference between the calcareous and basaltic sites appeared to be lower soil fertility at the basaltic site and a lower soil water retention capacity. At the semi-arid site, drought and high temperatures are so severe that growth of all but the most drought tolerant is greatly inhibited. Growth of K 636 to 1 m height in one year, more than double that of the next best species, is impressive under these conditions. Its superior performance under these extreme conditions confirms the suitability of this species in the less severe drought conditions that prevail in the agricultural areas of the Northwest. Based upon establishment and first-year growth rates, several species appear promising for alley cropping under different agro-ecological conditions in Haiti. None grew better than Leucaena leucocephala variety K 636 at any of the sites. Promising species include, for high elevation, Leucaena hybrid KX3 and Acacia angustissima; for low elevation, humid sites, the Leucaena species and Acacia angustissim, with Calliandra callothyrsus at the wetter sites; for semi-arid conditions, L. leucocephala and Gliricidia. KX3, L. salvadorensis and L. shannonii also show potential. These results should be regarded as preliminary. Final assessment will be based on biomass production under a pruning regime favorable to crop production.

 

Tran-senk espès bwa te plante sou ranp nan divès zòn nan péye-a; 16 nan wotè (1150 m); 20 sou sòl kalkè nan ba altitid imid, 16 sou sò bazaltik nan ba altitid imid; 18 nan ba altitid zòn sèk. Kèk espès tankou lesena K636 (Leucaena leucocephala, var K636), lesena ti fèy (L. diversifolia, var K156), pichpen (Casuarina cunninghamiana) ak piyon (Gliricidia sepium, var HYB) te simen nan tout sit yo. Semans ki pat leve te ranplase pa ti pyebwa ki gen menm laj ak sa ki te deja leve yo, men transplantasyon an te sispan-n akòz pwojè-a te kanpe. Nou te konte pyebwa ki nan ranp yo sou sis semen-n apre simen ak apeprè chak 2 a 4 mwa. Wotè pyebwa yo te mezire apeprè chak mwa. Nou konstate gwo diferans nan jan yo te leve, nan wotè pyebwa ak kantite fèy pou divès espès yo. Plizyè espès te byen etabli nan tout sit yo. Kèk lò espès tankou pichpen, desmodium, grevilya, pifò akasya yo sòf espès colei a ak angustissima ki té mal vinia sèlman nan sit bazaltik la, te difisil pou etabli lè yo simen yo dirèkteman. Nou remaké ke plant yo te byen vini pou pifò espès ki te plante sou sit nan wotè (1150 m) sò pou Acacia mearnsii, Mimosa scrabella ak Acacia decurrens. De espès te disparèt nan esè yo, imòtel (E. poeppiginiana) nan sit kalkè-a, A. tumida nan sit ba altitid zòn sèk la. Nan sit sèk la tou, kèk espès tankou Piptadenia peregrina, Albizia procera, Cassia siamea, Albizia guachepele ak Enterolobium cyclocarpum te pèdi anpil pye. Yon bon kantité tou te pèdi pou espès A. colei ak A. ampliceps. Nou te konstaté ke plant yo te byen vini pou pifò nan rès lòt espès yo. Sou 2 mwa edmi apre yo te simen, lesena K636, imòtel (E. indica) lesena ibrid KX3, piyon, lesena ti fèy K156 ak imòtel (E. poeppigiana) te piwo sou sit ki nan wotè a; E. cyclocarpum te piwo nan sit kalkè-a, apre li, nou te jwenn lesena K636, lesena espès salvadorensis ak imòtel (E. indica); nan sit bazaltik la se Enterolobium ki te piwo, lòt espès tankou L. salvadorensis, lesena K636 ak piyon te swiv li; Enterolobium ak lesena K636 te piwo nan sit ba altitid zòn sèk la. Apeprè 10 mwa pou rive sou 1 nan, lesena K636 te piwo nan sit ki nan wotè-a. Apre li nou jwenn lesena ibrid KX3, lesena ti fèy K156 ak A. angustissim. Lesena K636 ak lesena ibrid KX3 piwo nan sit kalkè a, lesena espès shannonii swiv yo. Nan sit bazaltik la, se lesena K636 ak lesena ibrid KX3 ki piwo, aprè yo sè kalyandra, lesena espès salvadorensis, lesena espès shannonii ak lesena ti fèy K156 ki vini. Nan sit zòn sèk la, lesena K636 pran plis wotè, apré li nou jwenn delen, Enterolobium ak piyon. Kantite fèy pa espès te swiv preske men-m lòd la tou sòf nou te jwenn plis fèy sou pichpen. Anpil nan espès ki gen grenn piti yo pa rekòmande pou simen dirèkteman nan jaden akòz pwoblèm pou yo jèmen. Sa limite enpòtans espès sa yo nan ranp pou kilti an koulwa. Kondisyon sèk ak fason lapli tonbe nan zòn ba altitid sèk la pa pèmèt pou simen dirèkteman. Kwasans ranp yo te bon anpil nan sit yo ki nan wotè ak sou tè kalkè, nòmal nan sit bazaltik la pou ankouraje kilti an koulwa, men kwasans ranp yo te pòv nan sit sèk la. Pi gwo diferans ant tè kalkè-a ak tè bazaltik se tè ki pòv lo mam sòl bazaltic la e ki pa ka kenbé dlo. Nan sit zòn sèk la, lesèk ak gwo tanperati te sitèlman rèd, kwasans tout espès yo men-m sila yo ki ka reziste ak lesèk té ralanti. Kwasans lesena K636 ki yon mèt (1 m) apre 1 nan, 2 fwa plis kwasans espès ki vinn apre-a, ankourajan nan kondisyon sa-a. Siperyorite espès sa-a anba kondisyon difisil sit sèk la, pèmèt nou kwè ké varyete K636 la ap pi byen adapte nan kondisyon mwen sèk ke nou jwenn nan nòdwès. Lè nou konsidere fason espès yo etabli ak kwasans yo sou premye lane-a, plizyè nan yo pwomèt pou fè kilti an koulwa anba divès kondisyon peyi dayiti. Pa gen espès ki grandi pi byen ke lesena K636 nan tout sit yo. Sou sit nan wotè-a, espès ki pwomèt se lesena ibrid KX3 ak A. angustissima; pou sit ba altitid imid yo, se espès lesena yo ak A. angustissima, avèk kalyandra sou sit ki jwenn plis lapli a; pou zòn sèk la, se lesena ak piyon ki pwomèt. Rezilta sa yo pa definitif. Rezilta final kap pèmèt nou konpare espès yo ap chita sou diferans ki genyen ant yo nan pwodiksyon byomas dapre fason ke koup bwa yo te fèt.