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Report 28. Increasing the marketability of manioc and breadfruit products by improving processing techniques


Lu, John Y.
Lea, John Dale (Zach)
Chery, Louis R.
Shannon, Dennis A.


Auburn, Ala. : Haiti Productive Land Use Systems Project, South-East Consortium for International Development and Auburn University


The perishability of fresh manioc roots and breadfruit places constraints on the marketing of these products. This study was made to investigate processing techniques to reduce these constraints. MANIOC: The primary objective of this consultancy was to test the commonly held belief among manioc processors that the traditional manioc flatbread (kassav in Haitian Creole) cannot be made from dried manioc chips. As a result of this perception and other economic factors, manioc production and kassav processing are done on a very small-scale which constrains the development of urban markets for the product. Proving that the kassav could be made from dried manioc will allow the development of alternative marketing channels for manioc. The study accomplished this objective. The consultant had traditional bakers produce kassav from manioc meal that had been removed from a traditional bakery, dried, then rehydrated and returned to the bakery. The results from a sensory evaluation of the product by a panel of Haitians demonstrate clearly that the product is tasty and accepted by Haitian people. The consultant also showed that kassav could be made from manioc meal made from dried manioc chips. This means that farmers could produce manioc chips, dry them and then ship them to cities whenever transportation is available (because the dried chips store well) and that meal made from such chips can be used to produce kassav. Concern over the levels of cyanide in manioc products led to testing cyanide levesl. Cyanide content in commercially available kassav ranged from 2.9 mg 100/g to 3.4 mg 100/g, while kassav made from dried manioc chips which had not been compressed to extract liquids (and some associated cyanide) contained 6.1 mg 100/g. Compressing the freshly grated manioc to extract liquids appeared to reduce cyanide levels. Since cooking is known to reduce the cyanide level of a product, tests were made to observe the reduction in cyanide levels obtained through cooking. The products tested included kassav and manioc flour porridge (a thick soup). Manioc flour is a by-product of kassav processing in Haiti and is used to make porridge. While cooking did reduce cyanide levels, the reduction was not sufficient to bring cyanide levels into a range comparable with those observed in products produced with traditional methods. These results indicate that manioc may have to be compressed at some point in order to reduce cyanide levels to those found in traditional, Haitian manioc products. This may most economically be done at the processor-level. It is important to emphasize that there is no consensus on the safe levels of cyanide for human consumption. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture considers "... a manioc cultivar innocuous or safe if the total cyanide content in mg HCN/kg fresh weight tuber is less thatn 50" (Mahungu, Yamaguchi, Almazan and Hahn). This corresponds to 20 mg/100 g dry weight. Thus, the cyanide levels found in Haitian manioc products, produced with the modified processes tested here, may not be considered high. Given adherence to recommendations, contained herein, concerning cyanide content, processors should be encouraged to develop processing and marketing channels for kassav and manioc flour based on dried manioc chips. BREADFRUIT: A Port-au-Prince processor indicated a desire to produce a fried breadfruit chip for the local and export markets. This study investigated the possibility of using sun-dried slices of breadfruit to produce fried breadfruit chips. The study showed that this would be possible if the thickness of the breadfruit slikces could be controlled. Additionally, the study found that dried slices of breadfruit store quite well over a period of at least two months. The applicability of flour made from dried breadfruit slices in other manufacturing processes was also tested. Results indicate that breadfruit flour could replace 5 percent of the wheat flour in making bread. Based on these results, the study recommends that other applications of the flour, such as in sauces, soups, puddings, cakes, cookies and crackers, should be tested. This study shows that with appropriate equipment for slicing fresh breadfruit, farmers can transform their highly perishable breadfruit into a relatively stable product with many potential uses at the farm and the food processing level. This could make a significant contribution toward the achievement of the PLUS project goal to increase farm income in a manner that supports conservation of natural resources. Farm income would increase as farmers either preserved for later use or sold more of their breadfruit harvest. The increased value flowing from breadfruit trees will increase the value of the trees to the farmers and should translate into enhanced conservation of the trees. Processors should be encouraged to develop processing and marketing channels for breadfruit chips and breadfruit derived from dried breadfruit chips.


Rasinn manyòk ak lam veritab pa konsève lontan apre yo finn rekòlte. Se yon pwoblèm lè pou yo vann. Etid sa a chèche teknik pou transfòme pwodwi sa yo pou rezoud pwoblèm sa a. MANYOK: Premye objektif etid sa a se chèche konnen si moun k'ap fè kasav gen rezon lè yo panse kasav pa kapab fèt ak farinn manyòk seche. Kòm konsekans kwayans sa a mete ak lòt pwoblèm ekonomik, sa fè pwodiksyon manyòk ak kasav pa fèt an gran kantite. Sa anpeche mache kasav devlope lavil. Si kasav te kapab fèt ak manyòk seche, sa ta pèmèt devlope lòt jan pou vann manyòk. Etid sa a arive montre sa posib. Konsiltan an fè moun ki gen kasavri fè kasav ak farinn manyòk. Li pran farinn manyòk nan kasavri, li fè seche farinn nan, apre li remouye-l, li retounen-l nan kasavri pou fè kasav avè-l. Kèk ayisyen ki goute kasav ki fèt jan sa a di li gen bon gou e yo renmen li. Konsiltan an montre tou kasav kapab fèt avè moso manyòk seche. Sa vle di, peyizan yo ta kapab koupe manyòk an moso, seche ye, apre voye vann lavil kote gen mwayen transpò (paske moso manyòk seche kapab konsève pandan yon bon tan). Farinn ki fèt ak moso manyòk seche ta kapab sèvi pou fè kasav. Yon lòt pwoblèm, se kantite yon pwazon ki rele siyani ("cyanure"), manyòk anmè genyen. Yo te teste tou kantite pwazon sa a non kasav la. Kasav ki abitye vann sou mache a genyen ant 2,9 mg/100 g a 3,4 mg/100 g, alòs kasav ki fèt ak moso manyòk seche ki pat prese pou fè dlo soti nan manyòk ki ta graje (pwazon an soti ak dlo a) genyen plis siyani, 6,1 mg/100 g. Prese manyòk graje pou fè dlo soti sanble diminye kantite siyani an. Kòm anjeneral nivo siyani an bese nan yon pwodwi lè li kwit, yo te teste kantite siyani ki genyen nan kasav ak labouyi farinn manyòk (ki se pwodwi ki kwit). Farinn manyòk se yon pwodwi ki jwenn nan manyòk lè kasav ap fèt. Nivo siyani bese vreman lè pwodwi yo kwit, men li pa rive menm jan ak nan kasav ki abitye fèt yo. Rezilta sa yo montre manyòk la te dwe prese pou jwenn menm nivo siyani ki genyen nan pwodwi manyòk ki abitye fèt yo. Mwayen ki pi ekonomik pou fè sa, se ta nan kasavri yo menm. Li enpòtan pou ta genyen yon antant sou nivo siyani ki pa danjere pou moun jwenn nan manje. Insiti Entènasyonal pou Agrikilti Tropikal (IITA) konsidere "... yon varyete manyòk pa danjere si kantite siyani an pa depase 50 HCN/kg manyòk fre" (Mahungu, Yamaguchi, Almazan ak Hahn). Sa vle di 20 mg/100 g manyòk seche. Kidonk, kantite siyani ki jwenn nan pwodwi ki fèt ak manyòk an Ayiti, jan ki te eseye nan etid sa a, ta dwe konsidere pa danjere pou moun manje. Dapre rekòmandasyon ki soti nan etid sa a, sou kesyon kantite siyani, yo ta dwe ankouraje moun ki nan biznis fè kasav ak farinn manyòk sèvi ak moso manyòk seche pou fè pwodwi sa yo. LAM VERITAB: Yon bizisman nan Pòtoprins te montre li enterese fè tranch lam veritab fri pou vann an Ayiti ak lòt bò dlo. Etid sa-a chèche wè si gen mwayen sèvi ak tranch lam veritab seche nan solèy pou pwodwi lam veritab fri. Anplis, etid sa-a montre li ta posib si yo ta kontwole gwosè tranch lam veritab yo. Etid sa montre tou moso lam veritab seche ka konsève pou plis pase de (2) mwa. Etid sa te chèche tou si gen mwayen fè lòt pwodwi avèk moso lam veritab seche. Rezilta yo montre farinn lam veritab kapab ranplase 5 pou san farinn ble pou fè pen. A pati rezilta sa yo, etid la rekòmande pou teste farinn lam veritab pou fè lòt bagay tankou, sòs, poudinn, gato, bonbon ak biswit sèk. Etid sa a montre ak ekipman byen chwazi pou koupe lam veritab an tranch, peyizan kapab fè lam anpil bagay lakay peyizan ak nan biznis ki transfòmr manje. Dekouvèt sa a ka pote yon diferans nan Pwojè PLUS ki vize pou ogmante lajan (revni) peyizan fè, au menm tan ki pèmèt konsève resous natirèl yo. Revni peyizan ap ogmante lè yo kapab sere nan rekòt lam veritab oubyen pou sèvi pi devan oubyen pou vann. Pye lam veritab t'ap genyen plis valè pou peyizan yo. Kòm konsekans, yo t'ap gen plis tandans pwoteje yo. Yo ta dwe ankouraje bizismann angaje nan fè tranch lam veritab ak farinn ki fèt ak moso lam veritab seche, epi devlope mache pou pwodwi sa yo.