Two-dimensional global hybrid simulation of pressure evolution and waves in the magnetosheath
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A two-dimensional hybrid simulation is carried out for the global structure of the magnetosheath. Quasi-perpendicular magnetosonic/fast mode waves with large-amplitude in-phase oscillations of the magnetic field and the ion density are seen near the bow shock transition. Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are observed along the streamlines in the magnetosheath, and the wave power peaks in the middle magnetosheath. Antiphase oscillations in the magnetic field and density are present away from the shock transition. Transport ratio analysis suggests that these oscillations result from mirror mode waves. Since fluid simulations are currently best able to model the global magnetosphere and the pressure in the magnetosphere is inherently anisotropic (parallel pressure p parallel to not equal perpendicular pressure pr), it is of some interest to see if a fluid model can be used to predict the anisotropic pressure evolution of a plasma. Here the predictions of double adiabatic theory, the bounded anisotropy model, and the double polytropic model are tested using the two-dimensional hybrid simulation of the magnetosheath. Inputs to the models from the hybrid simulation are the initial post bow shock pressures and the time-dependent density and magnetic field strength along streamlines of the plasma. The success of the models is evaluated on the basis of how well they predict the subsequent evolution of p(parallel to) and P-perpendicular to. The bounded anisotropy model, which encorporates a bound on p(perpendicular to)/p(parallel to) due to the effect of ion cyclotron pitch angle scattering, does a very good job of predicting the evolution of pr; this is evidence that local transfer of energy due to waves is occurring. Further evidence is the positive identification of ion-cyclotron waves in the simulation. The lack of such a good prediction for the evolution of p(parallel to) appears to be due to the model's lack of time dependence for the wave-particle interaction and its neglect of the parallel heat flux. Estimates indicate that these effects will be less significant in the real magnetosheath, though perhaps not negligible.