Multi-approach synergic investigation between land surface temperature and land-use land-cover
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Rapid urban expansion and associated land-use land-cover (LULC) change in India have emerged as a serious environmental threat that accelerates the impacts of urban heat island intensity (UHII). Three independent investigations have been conducted in this study using a series of Landsat data. The objectives of this work are: (1) To predict the near-future LULC scenario using an integrated model; (2) To understand the connection between band mean for particular LULC class with LST; (3) To analyze the temporal relationship between different types of built-up clusters and LST. The LULC and LST maps reveal that LST increases from 27.01 to 33.86C, whereas built-up areas rise from 6.93% to 27.10% during 1988–2018, respectively. We observed that the near-future LULC scenario of KMA shows a huge expansion of built-up areas paid by decreased vegetation and open spaces. A clear significant correlation has been found between band mean and LST in all three Landsat sensors with the R2 = 0.84; p\0.02 for Landsat 5 TM, R2 = 0.91 and 0.99; p\0.01 and 0.00 for Landsat 7 ETM+, and R2 = 0.88; p\0.01 for Landsat 8 OLI in connection to our second objective. However, no agreement has been found between different built-up clusters and LST over 30 years of observation. For the Brst time, this study established the interconnectivity between bands of Landsat sensors and LST. The temporal relationship between different built-up clusters and LST have reviled also for the Brst time. Beside this, the rising rate of builtup areas was observed by the integrated model. Such alarming condition demands immediate attention to sustainable, and scientiBc land use regulations under new urbanism policy.