On the potential of lignin-containing cellulose nanofibrils (LCNFs): a review on properties and applications
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This review outlines the present state and recent progress in the area of lignin-containing cellulose nanofibrils (LCNFs), an emerging family of green cellulose nanomaterials. Different types of LCNF raw materials are described, with main focus on wood-based raw materials, and the properties of the resulting LCNFs are compared. Common problems faced in industrial utilization of CNFs are discussed in the light of potential improvements from LCNFs, covering areas such as chemical and energy consumption, dewatering and redispersibility. Out of the potential applications, barrier films, emulsions and nanocomposites are considered.