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Report 18. Project PLUS baseline information (revised)

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dc.contributorAuburn University Librariesen_US
dc.contributor.otherAuburn Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherSouth-East Consortium for International Developmenten_US
dc.creatorLea, John Dale (Zach)en_US
dc.identifierUSAID (United States Agency for International Development). Contract no. 521-0217-C-00-0004-00en_US
dc.descriptionThe Haiti Productive Land Use Systems (PLUS) Research Project continued and expanded the work of the Haiti Agroforestry project. It was intended to encourage Haitian farmers to plant trees as part of an overall plan by USAID to curb the devastating erosion which was washing the top soil into the sea. This project also investigated the effects on other crops as a result of tree planting.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe information in this report was developed from a baseline survey of randomly selected farm households in the 16 monitoring zones of the Productive Land Use Systems Project (PLUS) during the period June-October 1993. The purpose of the information is for monitoring, evaluating, and guiding project progress toward the accomplishment of its objectives. The main findings are presented in concise form in this executive summary. More complete displays of the information and discussions of methodology and interpretation are given in the body of the report under similar headings. The questionnaire and manual used in the survey are presented in Appendix A. Farmers' Present Use of Improved Land Use Practices - 33 percent of farm plots have at least one of the four soil and water conservation structures promoted by the project. - 10 percent have at least one hedgerow. - 7 percent have at least one rockwall. - 19 percent have at least one stubble barrier. - 34 percent of reported ravines have at least one checkdam or ravine barrier. PLUS Project Impact on Improved Land Use Practices the Project has an obvious impact on the adoption of improved land use practices. The vast majority of farm plots containing soil and water conservation practices are managed by farmers who participate in Project activities. Relation between Land Tenure and Adoption Rates There is a positive relationship between land tenure security and soil and water conservation structures. Farm plots being worked by farmers having secure land tenure on the plot are more likely to have conservation structures on them than are plots worked by farmers without secure land tenure agreements. Globally, only 80 percent of the farm plots in our survey are covered by a secure tenure agreement that farmers feel would allow them to make long-tern investments such as hedgerows, rockwalls, or checkdams. One should expect that this will negatively influence the universal realization of soil and water conservation structures and limit the environmental impact of the project as presently implemented. Relation between Land Tenure and Slope of Farm Plot There is a negative relationship between secure land tenure and slope of plot. More highly sloped plots are more likely to be worked by farmers who do not feel they have a secure tenure agreement relating to the plot. One should expect that this will negatively influence the project's ability to have conservation practices used on more highly sloped farm plots. Farmers' Crop Revenue and Average Area Farmed The report contains tables showing average reported crop revenue by selected crop and by monitoring zone. Average reported total crop revenue per farm (farmers generally reported data for their 4 most important crops only) over all monitoring zones is 2,478 Gourds with a coefficient of variation of 6 percent. The average reported size of farms is 1.20 careaux or 1.55 hectares. These figures will be useful in understanding the impact of project interventions on farm household income. For example, increases in farm income can be compared with these base figures. Importance of Crop Revenue in Family Income The percentage of farmers indicating that crop revenue was their family's more important source of income was quite significant across all monitoring zones. In most zones, however, basic commodities such as cereals and beans were rated as the most important source of income by less than 50 percent of the respondents. In some zones, the largest percentage of respondents indicated that income from livestock was their number one source of income. In other zones, fruit or crops other than cereals or beans appeared to be the most important source of farm income. Of the many interpretations that can be advance relating to this information, the easiest to justify is that the zones may differ with respect to the importance placed on classes of agricultural activities. This implies that project programs should be tailored to the zone of implementation. The information developed here may be helpful in guiding program adaptations. Farmers' Investment Options Assuming that farmers' investment desires or intentions are a guide to the importance (as income-generating mechanisms) they place on various agricultural activities, we asked what they would invest in if they could obtain a loan. The responses were grouped into three classes: crops, livestock, or commercial enterprises. In 7 out of 16 monitoring zones, a larger number of participants mentioned crops as a desired investment than either of the other two classes of investments. Livestock was mentioned by the largest number of respondents in 3 zones, while commerce was mentioned most in 4 zones. Crops are preferred to livestock in 9 out of 16 zones. Livestock is preferred to crops in 5 zones. Crops and livestock were equally preferred in 2 zones. Again, the implication is that programs may need to be tailored to the zone of application. The information developed here may be helpful in guiding program adaptations. Farmers' Marketing Practices Although farmers appear to know seasonal prices, most market their agricultural products at "low" prices. Most market their production at the village level. This indicates a potential area of marketing efficiency gain through better vertical coordination with buyers closer to the final user of the product. Potential Increase in Income due to Improved Marketing Practices Using prices provided by the farmers, we estimated that farmers could increase their crop revenue by 50 percent or more through marketing practices that allowed them to receive "high" rather than "low" prices for their products. Third-party warehouses, which lend farmers money on stored products, could help capture some of the potential related to storable products such as grains. Value of Farm Labor We calculated an average value (money plus food and drink) for a day's work with a tillage pick for each zone and for all zones combined. The average for all zones combined in 8.70 Gds. The average work-day is 4.8 hours. Vegetable Gardens We asked farmers whether they currently had one or more vegetable gardens, their size, the types of vegetables grown, and whether or not some of the vegetables were sold. The data reveal striking differences, across monitoring zones, in the proportion of farmers having a vegetable garden. Secondly, it is evident that gardening usually contributes to farm income. Most farmers who have vegetable gardens sell some of the production. Farmers' Ownership of Livestock The most often reported number of animals (of a single species) per household was 1 for all species, except for chickens where 2 was the modal number reported. The most obvious finding is the absence of sheep from all but the zones in the Northwest. The reported number of animals per farm may appear low to an observer with a pro-livestock bias. Such observers may justify their position through reference to the often stated "fact" that Haitian farmers are reluctant to reveal accurate livestock ownership numbers.en_US
dc.description.abstractEnfòmasyon ki nan rapò sa-a te rasanbke pandan yon ankèt ak kèk peyizan ki te chwazi owaza nan sèz (16) zòn kote pwojè PLUS-la pa travay. Bi etid sa-a se pou swiv, evalwe, gide pwogrè pwojè-a ap fè pou rive satisfè objektif li yo. Enfòmasyon ki pi enpòtan ki te jwenn nan etid sa-a prezante nan rezime sa-a. Nan rapò-a gen plis detay sou enfòmasyon ak diskisyon sou metòd yo te sèvi pou fè etid-la ak sans yo bay rezilta yo. N-ap jwenn kesyonè ak dokiman yo itilize pou fè etid-la nan anèks A. Itilizasyon Pratik Amelyore Nan Jaden Peyizan Yo - 33 pou san jaden yo genyen omwen youn nan kat estrikt konsèvasyon ak dlo lapli pwojè-a fè ekstansyon pou yo. - 10 pou san gen omwen yon ranp vivan. - 7 pou san gen omwen yon kòdon ròch. - 20 pou san gen omwen yon ranp pay. - 34 pou san ravinn yo ba enfòmasyon sou yo gen omwen yon mi sèk oubyen yon lòt kalite baryè tankou kleyonaj. Enpak Pwoje PLUS Sou Adopsyon Pratik Amelyore (Konsevasyon Sol ak Dlo Lapli) Pwojè PLUS gen yon enpak sèten sou adopsyon pratik amelyore yo. Prèske tout jaden ki genyen estrikt konsèvasyon sòl ak dlo lapli se pou moun ki travay ak Pwojè-a. Relasyon ki Egziste Ant Degre Sekirite Sou Te-a ak Adopsyon Pratik Amelyore Gen yon relasyon pozitif ant degre sekirite sou tè-a ak estrikt konsèvasyon sòl ak dlo lapli yo. Jaden ki genyen estrikt sou yo, se ta plis jaden ki travay pa moun ki santi yo genyen plis sekirite sou tè-a. Angwo, se sèlman nan 80 pou san jaden ki te nan ankèt-la moun yo santi yo genyen ase sekirite sou tè yo pou yo dakò fè estrikt tankou ranp vivan, kòdon ròch ou byen mi sèk ki mande pou fè envestisman alontèm. Kidonk, fòk yo pa atann aske tout moun fè estrikt konsèvasyon sòl ak dlo lapli sou tè yo. Pwoblèm sekirite sou tè-a ka limite enpak pwojè-a sou anvironman nan zòn kote l-ap travay kounye-a. Relasyon Ant Degre Sekirite Sou Te-a ak Pant Jaden Yo Gen yon relasyon negatif ant degre sekirite sou tè-a ak pant jaden yo. Jaden ki gen pi gwo pant yo se jaden ki travay pa moun ki santi yo pa genyen twòp sekirite sou tè-a. Kidonk, moun ki gen jaden sou gwo pant ta gen tandans mwens adopte pratik konsèvasyon sòl. Kantite Lajan Jaden Yo Rapote ak Kantite Te Moun Yo Travay Rapò sa-a gen tablo ki montre konbyen lajan anmwayenn jaden yo rapòte pou kèk kilti ak pou chak zòn ankèt-la te fèt. Lè yo mete tout zòn yo ansanm, yon jaden rapòte anmwayenn (anjeneral peyizan yo bay enfòmasyon pou 4 kilti ki pi enpòtan yo sèlman) 2,478 goud, kòb ki varye de 6 pou san. Yon jaden mezire anmwayenn 1,20 karo ki vo 1,55 ekta tè. Chif sa yo ap itil pou konprann enpak aktivite pwojè-a sou kantite kòb yon fanmi fè. Pa egzanp, chif sa yo ka pèmèt wè ki kantite lajan anplis ki fèt nan yon jaden. Enpotans Kantite Kob Ki Fet Nan Jaden Pou Yon Fanmi Peyizan Pou tout zòn kote ankèt la te fèt, anpil moun di se rekòt nan jaden yo ki pi gwo sous pou yo rantre lajan. Nan prèske tout zòn yo, mwens pase 50 pou san moun deklare se kilti tankou sereal (mayi, pitimi, ...) ak pwa ki pi enpòtan pou yo. Nan kèk zòn, anpil moun di se elvaj ki te sous lajan nimero 1 pou yo. Nan kèk lòt zòn, fwi ak lòt kilti ki pa sereal ou byen pwa, te sanble pi enpòtan pou moun fè kòb. Sa ta vle di enpòtans yon aktivite agrikòl varye swivan zòn nan. Sa ta vle di tou pwogram pwojè-a ta dwe fèt selon enpòtans aktivite yo genyen nan zòn yo. Enfòmasyon sa yo ta ka itil pou pèmèt pwojè-a adapte pwogram li selon reyalite chak zòn. Nan Ki Aktivite Moun Yo Ta Renmen Envesti Lajan Nou sipoze lè yon peyizan di li ta renmen envesti nan yon aktivite, se aktivite sa-a ki genyen plis enpòtans pou li. Pou nou te konnen ki aktivite agrikòl peyizan yo bay plis valè, nou mande yo nan ki aktivite yo ta renmen envesti si yo ta jwenn prete lajan. Te genyen twa kategori respons: lakilti, elvaj, ou byen biznis komès. Pami 16 zòn ankèt la te fèt, nan 7, anpil moun reponn se nan lakilti yo ta renmen envesti; nan 3 zòn, se elvaj ki te antèt kòm aktivite; nan 4 lòt zòn, se komès ki te pi enpòtan pou yo. You lòt fwa ankò, sa montre pwojè-a dwe adapte pwogram li yo selon reyalite chak zòn. Enfòmasyon sa yo ka itil pou fè travay sa-a. Fason Moun Yo Vann Pwodwi Yo Menm si peyizan yo sanble konnen pri pwodwi yo pou chak sezon nan ane-a, anpil nan yo vann rekòt yo a "ba" pri. Anpil nan yo vann rekòt yo nan lokalite kote y-ap viv al. Sa montre gen mwayen ogmante lajan ki fèt nan lavant pwodwi yo si yo ta mete peyizan yo ankontak ak komèsan ki pi pre achtè yo. Mwayen Pou Ogmante Lajan Peyizan Yo Jwenn Nan Lavant Pwodwi Yo Lè nou konsidere pri peyizan yo jwenn nan lavant pwodwi yo, nou estime yo te ka jwenn 50 pou san anplis emenn plis si ta gen yon chanjman ki ta pèmèt yo jwenn pi wo nonpa pi "ba" pri pou pwodwi yo. Yon mwayen pou ta ke fè moun yo fè plis kòb sou pwodwi ki ka sere nan depo yo tankou grenn mayi, diri, pitimi, pwa. Vale Travay Ki Fet Nan Jaden Yo Pou chak zòn ak pou tout zòn ansanm, nou kalkile apeprè sa ki depanse (lajan plis manje ak bweson) pou yon jounen travay nan prepare tè ak pikwa. Pou tout zòn yo, se 8 goud 70 ki depanse pou yon jounen. Tan yon jounen travay se 4,8-è. Jaden Legim Nou mande moun yo si yo abitye genyen yon jaden legim oubyen plis, sou ki kantite tè, ki legim yo fè ladan yo, si yo vann legim yo fè oubyen yo manje yo. Chif yo montre gen gwo diferans ant zòn yo nan kantite moun ki genyen jaden legim. Sèlman, li klè jaden legim yo pote yon lajan anplis pou moun ki fè-l yo. Majorite peyizan yo vann yon pati nan legim yo. Kantite Bet Moun Yo Genyen Dapre enfòmasyon ki jwenn, chak fanmi genyen yon sèl bèt nan chak kalite, eksepte pou poul yo genyen de (2). Pi gwo enfòmasyon ki jwenn sou kesyon elvaj-la sèke pa genyen mouton nan tout zòn yo sòf nan Nodwès. Kantite bèt moun yo genyen ka parèt twò piti pou moun ki konnen sitiyasyon agrikilti nan peyi Dayiti. Sa ka sanble sètin moun gen rezon lè yo panse peyizan ayisyen toujou ap kache vrè kantite bèt yo
dc.publisherAuburn, Ala. : Haiti Productive Land Use Systems Project, South-East Consortium for International Development and Auburn Universityen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSECID/Auburn Agroforestry Report No. 18en_US
dc.rightsThis document is the property of the Auburn University Libraries and is intended for non-commercial use. Users of the document are asked to acknowledge the Auburn University Libraries.en_US
dc.subjectAgricultural innovations--Haitien_US
dc.subjectLand use--Haitien_US
dc.subjectRock wallsen_US
dc.subjectStubble barriersen_US
dc.subjectCheck damsen_US
dc.subjectLand tenureen_US
dc.subjectFarm revenueen_US
dc.titleReport 18. Project PLUS baseline information (revised)en_US

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