Report 52. Findings of surveys on yam (Dioscorea spp.) production in the Grande Anse Department, Haiti
Shannon, Dennis A.
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DescriptionThe Haiti Productive Land Use Systems (PLUS) Research Project continued and expanded the work of the Haiti Agroforestry project. It was intended to encourage Haitian farmers to plant trees as part of an overall plan by USAID to curb the devastating erosion which was washing the top soil into the sea. This project also investigated the effects on other crops as a result of tree planting.
Surveys were conducted on yam production in 18 localities in the Moron and Dame Marie regions of the Grande Anse Department of Haiti. The objectives were to identify the areas in which yam is grown, identify and characterize the varieties and species of yam grown, describe the production system and identify the constraints facing yam production in the region. Farmers in Moron and Dame Marie cultivate a large number of yam varieties, representing five species: Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata, D. cayenensis, D. trifida and D. bulbifera. Around 40 varietal names were recorded by various researchers. A precise count of the number of varieties grown cannot be determined because some varieties may have more than one name, while a given name may be used to describe more than one variety. Nevertheless, the large number of named varieties grown speaks to the importance of yam to the region. Some varieties are widely grown across the two regions, some varieties are found in only one or two localities, and some that were once widely grown are now becoming scarce. The varieties, Ginin, Fran (Jòn), Bandoule (Jòn), Plinbit, Bakala and Toro were present in all 18 localities surveyed. Many of the best quality yams are among the most scarce. Insects, diseases, weather and declining soil fertility are among the reasons attributed to the decline and loss of yam varieties. Most yams are planted between January and June. February and March are the months in which planting is most intense. Most varieties are harvested between December and May, although some (Bangoule, Fran) are harvested all year. Most varieties mature in 8-12 months, except for Ginen, which has a cycle of 6-8 months, and Adigwe, which has a cycle of 5-7 months. The primary production constraints, according to farmers in Moron and Dame Marie, are the moroca larvae, a black rot disease, locally called gâle, low yield, wilting and stress attributed to wind and excess rain (boulaison), and tuber rot. Ants, rats, birds and snails were also cited. The maroca larvae bore channels through the tubers and render them inedible. Yellow varieties are considered by some farmers to be more tolerant of maroca, or may avoid a more serious infestation by having a shorter life cycle than other varieties. The crowns of infected tubers are stored in the field, allowing the larvae to reinfest the soil. Yam may also be grown repetitively on the same land, allowing the pest to proliferate in infected fields. A large number of products are used in an attempt to control moroca, but most remedies are not judged to be effective and 585 of farmers do nothing to control the pest. The most commonly cited remedies were naphthalene, animal manure, several plants that have a strong odor (pine, vetiver grass, lemon grass) and insecticide. Manual control and use of pigs to rut out larvae were also mentioned. Additional research on control of maruca larvae is needed. Yam is a crop with good potential for both the domestic and export markets. The Grande Anse, with its history of yam production and large numbers of varieties grown stands to benefit from development of the yam market. Yam production in Grande Anse faces serious constraints due to maroca infection and disease that must be taken into consideration in any production and marketing effort. These pests and diseases have the potential to undermine any marketing effort by rendering tubers unmarketable, as well as by reducing yields. Research and training is needed to develop and extend integrated management practices to control the major pests and diseases, improve yields and maintain soil fertility. Steps should also be taken to collect, propagate and distribute high quality yam varieties that are in danger of disappearing in the region.You ankêt sou pwodiksyon yanm te mennen nan 18 lokalite Moron ak Dammari nan rejyon Grand'anse peyi Dayiti. Objectif travay sa a se te: idantifie zon kote yo kiltive yanm, chêche limiè sou variete ak espès yanm yo, dekri systèm pwodiksyon yanm yo ak chache konnen tout kalite kontrent ke kilti genyen nan zon sa yo. Peyizan nan Moron ak Dammari kiltive ampil yanm ki reprezante 5 espès: Dioscorea alata, D. rotunda, D. cayensis, D. trifida ak D. bulbifera. Anketè jwenn prèski 40 nom yanm nan lokalite yo. Yo pa kapab ekri ak presizyon kombyen variete yanm ki egziste nan zon yo, paske varite yanm yo kab gen pliziè nom e you nom ka batize pliziè variete yanm. Sepandan gran kantite nom sa yo montre klè kombyen yanm impotan nan rejyon Grand'anse. Gen variete yanm yo jwenn nan tou 2 rejyon yo, gen lot se nan you sèl lokalite anketè yo jwenn yo e gen lot ki te trè koni ki kounie ya vin trè ra. Si la yo ki rele yanm Ginen, Yanm Fran (jon), yanm Bangoul (jon), yanm Plenbit, yanm Bakala ak yanm Toro retrouve yo nan 18 lokalite ankèt la kouvri a. Ampil yanm ki gen bon kalite retrouve yo pami si la yo ki pira yo. Ensèk, maladi, pwoblem la pli ak lesec, tè mèg fê pati de rezon ki fè ke variete sa yo ap fin depafini ou ap fin disparèt. Peyizan yo plante yanm ant mwa Janvie ak mwa Jwen. Men sa nan mwa Fevriye ak mwa Mas ke yo plante yanm piplis. La plipa variete yanm yo, bon pou rekolte ant mwa Disanm ak mwa Me. Sepandan, yanm bangoul ak yanm Fran rekolte tout lane. Yanm yo an jeneral pran 8 a 12 mwa pou yo donnen, sof yanm Ginen ki rekolte sou 6 a 8 mwa, ak yanm Adigwe ki donnen apre 5 a 7 mwa. Peyizan Moron ak Dammari eksplike ke pi gwo pwoblem yanm se lav maroca, maladi pouriti nwa ke peyizan yo rele gal, ba donnenzon, fletrisman ak estrès ke van pote ak ampil lapli (boulezon) ak pouriti tibèkil. Yo site tou nom rat, poud bwa, zoazo ak kalmason. Lav maroka yo fouye you twou nan didan yanm nan e yo vin pa ka manjel. Variete jon yo samble pi toleran a maroka ke lot yo. Yo kab evite domaj maroka paske yo pran pi piti tan pou yo donnen. Peyizan you kite nan jaden a kouron tibèkil infeste yo sa pèmèt lav maroka yo reinfeste sol yo. Yanm kon tou plante chak sezon menm chan an, pratik sa a tou pèmèt parazit yo miltipliye e infeste jaden yo. Peyizan yo kon itilize ampil pestisid pou kontwole maroca, men yo pa eficaz ditou epi 58% peyizan ankete yo pa fê okenn kontwol. Pwodwi ke peyizan yo site piplis se: naphthalene, fimie bèt, plant ki gen odè fò tankou Pen, Vetivê, sitwonèl ak ensektisid. Yo itilize tou, kontwol ak men, kochon pou detere lav maroca yo. Plis travay rechèch dwe fèt sou kontwol maroka nan yanm. Yanm se you kilti ki gen ampil bon potansièl pou mache nasyonal ak lot bo dlo. Grand'anse ak pase li nan pwodicksyon yanm e ampil variete yanm ke li genyen ta dwe benefisye de sa ampil. Pwodiksyon yanm nan Grand'ans gen de serie pwoblem maroka ak maladi ke yo dwe pran an konsiderasyon nan bon jan jefò kap fèt pou leve eskamp figi pwodiksyon yanm peyi Dayiti paske parazit sa yo kap mine tout jefò sa yo, lè yo rand tibèkil yo envandab ak tou redwi randman yanm nan. Gen ampil nesesite pou travay rechèch ak fomasyon pou devlope ak vilgarize bon jan pratik entegre pou kontwole pest ak maladi epi ameliore randman yanm ak kenbe grès tè. Travay doue fè tou pou kolecte, miltipliye bon kalite variete yanm ki an danje de disparisyon nan rejyon Grandans la.