Circular 212Apl,17
April, 1974
Effect of
Phoratc Carboforan, Met b oivl, and DS LI1foton, on Growth and Yiecld of Soy bea ns
y7 a +a:ms $
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AGRICULTURAL R. Dennis Rouse,
EXPERItiENT STATION/AUBURN Director
UNIVERSITY
Auburn, Alabama
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CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ...........
METHODS AND MATERIALS
3 3  4 8
R ESULTS ................
REFERENCES
CITED .......
FIRST
PRINTING
3M,
APRIL
1974
Auburn University is an equal opportunity employer
Effect of Phorate, Carbofuran, Methoiyl, and
Disulfoton on Growth and Yield of Soybeans
RONNIE SHEHANE and MAX H. BASS1
INTRODUCTION
EFFECTS (beneficial or detrimental) of insecticides on the morphology and physiology of crop plants is poorly understood. Arthur and Arant demonstrated plant growth inhibition after treatment with certain insecticides while Wressell and Driscoll suggested that systemic insecticides might stimulate plant growth and thus increase yields. Wheeler and Bass reported that phorate, carbofuran, methomyl, and disulfoton, when applied to soybeans, did not affect germination, number of mature pods per plant, or yield. They did report, however, that soybean plants were taller in plots treated with methomyl and carbofuran. The following experiment was conducted in order to clarify some of the findings of Wheeler and Bass.
THE
METHODS AND MATERIALS An experiment was conducted at the Gulf Coast Substation, Fairhope, Alabama, to determine some of the effects of disulfoton, phorate, carbofuran, and methomyl on soybean plants. These systemic insecticides were used with six methods of application. These were: granules in seed furrow at planting (plots were planted and granules applied by hand on June 17), granules as a layby sidedressing on July 16, foliar spray at first bloom (August
Elementary Science Consultant, Muscogee County School District, Columbus, Georgia and Professor, ZoologyEntomology Department.
6), foliar spray 2 weeks after first bloom (August 20), foliar spray 4 weeks after first bloom (September 3), and a combination of the previous five applications. Blooms began to appear on the soybean plants between July 30 and August 6. The first foliar sprays were applied to appropriate plots on August 6 using a hand operated 2gallon Hudson sprayer. Later foliar sprays were applied on August 20 and September 3. The insecticide formulations utilized were disulfoton 15 percent G. and 6 pounds per gallon E. C., phorate 10 percent G., and 6 pounds per gallon E. C., carbofuran 10 percent G., and 4 pounds per gallon E. C., and methomyl 5 percent G. and 90 percent W. P. All treatments were applied at the rate of 1 pound per acre. Two untreated checks were provided, resulting in a total of 26 treatments. All treatments (including checks) were replicated four times in a completely randomized block design. Each plot was 91/2 feet wide (three rows) and 15 feet long with no alleys or buffer rows between plots. Soybean seed of the Bragg variety, inoculated with Nitragin®, were planted on June 17, by hand, at the rate of 14 seeds per foot. Measurements of plant height were made on the following dates: July 16, July 30, August 13, August 27, and September 9. Measurements were made by selecting at random and measuring the tallest stem of 10 plants from the middle 10 feet of the record row in each plot. Yield data were obtained by harvesting the middle 10 feet of the middle row in each plot on October 24. The soybeans were harvested in each plot by hand and threshed with a small thresher. The threshed beans were placed in paper bags which had been marked with the appropriate plot numbers. To obtain seed weight data, 100 seeds from each plot were weighed. Since seeds were thoroughly dry before harvest and held in the laboratory for several weeks before weighing, moisture content was assumed to be uniform at the time of weighing.
RESULTS
Plantheight measurements were taken to the nearest halfinch. Plants measured 3 weeks after planting averaged 13.8 inches for all plants. The mean extremes ranged from 12.7 inches in plots treated with phorate in the seed furrow to 15.5 inches in plots treated with methomyl in the seed furrow. The mean height of plants from the two untreated checks was 13.0 inches. There were no significant differences (5 percent level) in mean heights
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detected among the treatments. Data were taken only from the check plots and plots which had received the appropriate treatments. Overall mean plant height, taken 2 weeks after application of inches. the July 16 (layby) sidedressing treatments, was inches in from The mean extremes of these data ranged plots treated with phorate in the seed furrow to 27.6 inches in plots treated with carbofuran in the seed furrow in combination with an application as a sidedressing at layby. The mean height of plants from the two untreated checks was 25.7 inches. No significant differences existed among the treatment mean heights at the 5 percent level. A third plantheight measurement was taken 1 week after the application of foliar sprays at first bloom. The mean height of all plants was 37.7 inches. The means ranged from 35.8 inches spray at in plots treated with phorate, applied as a bloom, to 39.9 inches in plots treated with methomyl, applied in
26.3 25.0
foliar
first
TABLE
1.
THE MEAN HEIGHTS IN INCHES OF SOYBEAN PLANTS THE APPLICATION OF THE THIRD FOLIAR SPRAY
1
WEEK AFTER
Treatment* 40.Oa Untreated check      Untreated check Disulfoton applied in seed furrowDisulfoton applied at layby . Disulfoton applied at first bloom4aDisulfoton applied 2 weeks after first bloomDisulfoton applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first 39.3a Phorate applied in seed furrowPhorate applied at laybyPhorate applied at first bloom . Phorate applied 2 weeks after first bloomPhorate applied 4 weeks after first bloomfirst bloom, Phorate applied in seed furrow, at layby, 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloomCarbofuran applied in seed furrowCarbofuran applied ,at laybyCarbofuran applied at first bloomCarbofuran applied 2 weeks after first bloom.Carbofuran applied 4 weeks after first bloomCarbofuran applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 42.2a 42. 5 a 41.8a 39.Oa
bloom_42.7a
40.3a 40.0a 41.6a 42.3a 40.9a 40.0a 40.5a 40.4a 42.5a 43.1a
at
2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first
Methomyl applied in seed
M ethomyl
Methomyl
Methomyl applied 2 weeks after first bloomMethomyl applied 4 weeks after first bloom
furrow applied at layby applied at first bloom __
41.6a bloom 42.9a
38.8a
42.1a
furrow, at layby, at first bloom, Methomyl applied in 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloom
Means designated by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 5 percent level.
11
seed

42.7a
39.8a
40.8a
the seed furrow. The mean plant height from the two untreated checks was 36.8 inches. No significant differences existed at the 5 percent level among the treatment means. A fourth plantheight measurement was taken 1 week after the application of foliar sprays 2 weeks after first bloom. The overall mean plant height at this time was 40.4 inches. The mean height ranged from 38.8 inches in plots treated with phorate as a foliar spray at first bloom and plots treated with methomyl as a sidedressing at layby to 42.6 inches in plots treated with foton as a foliar spray 2 weeks after first bloom. The mean plant height from the two untreated check plots was 40.3 inches. No significant differences existed among treatment mean heights at the 5 percent level. The fifth, and last, plantheight measurement was taken 1 week after the third application of foliar sprays 4 weeks after the first bloom, Table 1. These data revealed an overall mean plant
disil
TABLE 2.
THE MEAN SOYBEAN YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER TREATMENTS
AcRE
AFTER THE INDICATED
Treatment* U ntreated check      U ntreated check      Disulfoton applied in seed furrow Disulfoton applied at layby Disulfoton applied at first bloom .Disulfoton applied 2 weeks after first bloomDisulfoton applied 4 weeks after first bloomDisulfoton applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloom Phorate applied in seed furrow37.laPhorate applied at layby  Phorate applied at first bloom

35.3a 39.7a 33.la36.8a37.8a
38.a 36.6a
88.6a 39.2a
36.9a 38.1a
Phorate applied 2 weeks after first bloomPhorate applied 4 weeks after first

Phorate applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom. 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloomCarbofuran applied in seed furrowCarbofuran applied at laybyCarbofuran applied at first
bloom 
31. 5 a 40.4a 37.1a 37.5ia
34.1a
bloom 
applied Carbofuran applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom,
Carbofuran applied 2 weeks after first
bloom
36.6a
Carbofuran
4 weeks after first bloom
39.9a
2 weeks after first bloomi, and 4 weeks after first bloomMethomyl applied in seed furrowM ethomyl applied at layby Methomyl applied 2 weeks Methomyl applied 4 weeks
Methomyl applied at first bloom
Methomyl applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 3.3a bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloom 2 weeks after 0 Means designated by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 5 percent level.
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first
after first bloom after first bloom 
37. 5 a 35.3a
38.1a
36.1a 85.1a
37.4a
height of 41.3 inches. The mean extremes ranged from 38.8 inches in plots treated with methomyl as a sidedressing at layby to 43.1 inches in plots treated with carbofuran as a foliar spray 4 weeks after the first bloom. The mean plant height from the check plots was 41.1 inches. No significant differences existed among treatment height means at the 5 percent level. The average yield mean from all plots was 36.8 bushels per acre. The yield means ranged from 31.5 bushels per acre from plots treated with phorate as a foliar spray 2 weeks after first bloom to 39.9 bushels per acre from plots treated with carbofuran as a foliar spray 4 weeks after first bloom, Table 2. The yield mean from check plots was 37.5 bushels per acre. There were no significant differences among yields. The average weight of 100 seeds from both treated and untreated plots was 15.0 grams. The means by treatments ranged from 14.3 grams from plots that received carhofuran combination
TABLE 3. THE MEAN WEIGHTS IN GRAMS OF TREATMENTS
100
SEEDS AFTER THE INDICATED
Treatment' Untreated check      U ntreated check   Disulfoton applied in seed furrow Disulfoton applied at laybyDisulfoton applied at first bloom Disulfoton applied 2 weeks after first bloom.___________ Disulfoton applied 4 weeks after first bloomDisulfoton applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first Phorate applied in seed furrow Phorate applied at layby ._4_____5a____ 14.8a 14.8a


15.2a 14.8a 15.3a

14.9a 15.3a
14.9a 15.2a
1.a
bloom

Phorate applied at first
bloom 
Phorate applied 2 weeks after first Pborate applied 4 weeks after first
Phorate applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom, 2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first bloomCarbofuran applied in seed
bloom bloom 
14.8a
furrow  Carbofuran applied at layby Carbofuran applied at first bloom Carbofuran applied 2 weeks after first bloom
15.2a 5
1 .Oa
14.8a
14.8a
Carbofuran applied 4 weeks after first bloom Carbofuran applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom,
2 weeks after first bloom, and 4 weeks after first
Metbomyl applied in seed
. ________
bloom
14.5a
15. la
14.3a
15.8a
M ethomyl applied at layby Metbomyl applied at first bloom
furrow 
bloom
14.6a
14.8a
Methomyl applied 2 weeks after first bloom._______________
Methomyl applied 4 weeks after first 2 weeks after
0
14.9a
14.9a
Methomyl applied in seed furrow, at layby, at first bloom,
first bloom,
and 4 weeks after first
15.7a bloom 
Means designated by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 5 percent level. [71
treatments to 15.8 grams from plots that received methomyl in the seed furrow. The mean weight per 100 seeds from the checks was 14.8 grams, Table 3. No significant differences existed among the means. There were no significant differences among treatment means throughout this experiment. The insecticides tested had little effect, if any, on soybean plants when applied at the rate of 1 pound per acre. REFERENCES CITED
ARTHUR, B. W. AND F. S. ARANT. 1954. Effect of systemic insecticides upon certain peanut insects and upon peanuts. J. Econ. Entom. 47: 11111114. WHEELER, BRENT A. AND MAX H. BAss. 1971. Effects of Certain Systemic Insecticides on Growth and Yield of Soybeans. 64:12191221.
WRESSEL, H. B. AND G. R. DRISCOLL. 1964. The use of systemic in
secticides for control of the potato leaf hopper, Empoasca effect on potato yield. 57:992993.
fabae, and the
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